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As the field of nutritional neuroscience has grown, both the scientific community and the general population have expressed a heightened interest in the effect of nutrients on behavior. Diet, Brain, Behavior: Practical Implications presents the work of a diverse group of scientists who collectively explore the broad scope of research in the field. The subject matter of each chapter in this volume was chosen to ensure the current or potential for further applicability to practical, applied issues. Topics discussed include: Concepts of mental energy and fatigue The dangers of obesity and its effect on behavior Exercise, dietary restriction, and supplements for weight loss The effects of caffeine, creatine, theanine, B vitamins, and other dietary supplements on brain functioning and behavior The reward deficiency hypothesis and eating disorders The importance of maintaining proper fluid intake The effects of eating breakfast on performance The role of diet in pain sensitivity During the past decade, there has been an explosion in research and publications in this field. This collection of contributions represents the cutting edge of current research and new advancements in this area. The book provides essential information to those working in a diverse range of fields, including nutrition, neuroscience, psychology, and exercise physiology as well as medicine, dietetics, and occupational therapy.
Ignite your excitement about behavioral neuroscience with Brain & Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience, Fifth Edition by best-selling author Bob Garrett and new co-author Gerald Hough. Garrett and Hough make the field accessible by inviting readers to explore key theories and scientific discoveries using detailed illustrations and immersive examples as their guide. Spotlights on case studies, current events, and research findings help readers make connections between the material and their own lives. A study guide, revised artwork, new animations, and an accompanying interactive eBook stimulate deep learning and critical thinking.
Biomedical research in the first decade of the 21st century has been marked by a rapidly growing interest in epigenetics. The reasons for this are numerous, but primarily it stems from the mounting realization that research programs focused solely on DNA sequence variation, despite their breadth and depth, are unlikely to address all fundamental aspects of human biology. Some questions are evident even to non-biologists. How does a single zygote develop into a complex multicellular organism composed of dozens of different tissues and hundreds of cell types, all genetically identical but performing very different functions? Why do monozygotic twins, despite their stunning external similarities, often exhibit significant differences in personality and predisposition to disease? If environmental factors are solely the cause of such variation, why are similar differences also observed between genetically identical animals housed in a uniform environment? Over the last couple of decades, epigenetics has undergone a significant metamorphosis from an abstract developmental theory to a very dynamic and rapidly developing branch of molecular biology. This volume represents a compilation of our current understanding about the key aspects of epigenetic processes in the brain and their role in behavior. The chapters in this book bring together some of the leading researchers in the field of behavioral epigenetics. They explore many of the epigenetic processes which operate or may be operating to mediate neurobiological functions in the brain and describe how perturbations to these systems may play a key role in mediating behavior and the origin of brain diseases.
Grounded in cutting-edge research on brain?behavior relationships, this book explores how language and reading disorders develop--and presents exciting new approaches to examining and treating them. Experts from multiple disciplines investigate how children's learning trajectories in spoken and written language are shaped by the dynamic interplay of neurobiological, experiential, and behavioral processes. The volume includes innovative neuroimaging applications and other state-of-the-science techniques that help shed new light on childhood disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, writing disabilities, and autism. Implications for evidence-based diagnosis, intervention, and instruction are discussed. Illustrations include five color plates.
This book is a comprehensive overview of the main current concepts in brain cognitive activities at the global, collective (or network) level, with a focus on transitions between normal neurophysiology and brain pathological states. It provides a unique approach of linking molecular and cellular aspects of normal and pathological brain functioning with their corresponding network, collective and dynamical manifestations that are subsequently extended to behavioural manifestations of healthy and diseased brains. This book introduces a high-level perspective, searching for simplification amongst the structural and functional complexity of nervous systems by consideration of the distributed interactions that underlie the collective behaviour of the system. The authors hope that this approach could promote a global comprehensive understanding of high-level laws behind the elementary biological processes in the neuroscientific community, while, perhaps, introducing elements of biological complexities to the mathematical/computational readership. The title of the book refers to the main point of the monograph: that there is a smooth continuum between distinct brain activities resulting in different behaviours, and that, due to the plastic nature of the brain, the behaviour can also alter the brain function, thus rendering artificial the boundaries between the brain and its behaviour.
ADHD as a Model of Brain-Behavior Relationships Leonard F. Koziol, Deborah Ely Budding, and Dana Chidekel Series Title: Springer Briefs in Neuroscience Subseries: The Vertically Organized Brain in Theory and Practice It's been a basic neurological given: the brain does our thinking, and has evolved to do the thinking, as controlled by the neocortex. In this schema, all dysfunction can be traced to problems in the brain’s lateral interactions. But in scientific reality, is this really true? Challenging this traditional cortico-centric view is a body of research emphasizing the role of the structures that control movement-the brain's vertical organization-in behavioral symptoms. Using a well-known, widely studied disorder as a test case, ADHD as a Model of Brain-Behavior Relationships offers an innovative framework for integrating neuroscience and behavioral research to refine diagnostic process and advance the understanding of disorders. Identifying a profound disconnect between current neuropsychological testing and the way the brain actually functions, this revision of the paradigm critiques the DSM and ICD in terms of the connectedness of brain structures regarding cognition and behavior. The authors argue for a large-scale brain network approach to pathology instead of the localizing that is so common historically, and for an alternate set of diagnostic criteria proposed by the NIMH. Included in the coverage: The diagnosis of ADHD: history and context. ADHD and neuropsychological nomenclature Research Domain Criteria: a dimensional approach to evaluating disorder The development of motor skills, executive function, and a relation to ADHD The role of the cerebellum in cognition, emotion, motivation, and dysfunction How large-scale brain networks interact Heralding a more accurate future of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders, ADHD as a Model of Brain-Behavior Relationships represents a major step forward for neuropsychologists, child psychologists, and psychiatrists, or any related profession interested in a neuroscientific understanding of brain function.
As scientists at the frontiers of neuroscience are discovering, violent behaviour is not simply a result of poverty or moral decline, but is also located in the way our brains work. This text therefore examines violence from a biological perspective.
Much of contemporary behavioral or cognitive neuroscience is concerned with discovering the neural basis of psychological processes such as attention, cognition, consciousness, perception, and memory. In sharp divergence from this field, An Odyssey Through the Brain, Behavior and the Mind can be regarded as an elaborate demonstration that the large scale features of brain electrical activity are related to sensory and motor processes in various ways but are not organised in accordance with conventional psychological concepts. It is argued that much of the traditional lore concerning the mind is based on prescientific philosophical assumptions and has little relevance to brain function. The first ten chapters of An Odyssey Through the Brain, Behavior and the Mind give a personal account of how the various discoveries that gave rise to these views came to be made. This is followed by discussions of brain organization in relation to behavior, learning and memory, sleep and consciousness, and the general problem of the mind.
This book contains selected contributions of papers, many presented at the Second International Workshop on Neural Modeling of Brain Disorders, as well as a few additional papers on related topics, including a wide range of presentations describing computational models of neurological, neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. It is a unique, comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art of modeling cognitive and brain disorders, appealing to a multidisciplinary audience of clinicians, psychologists, neuroscientists, cognitive scientists, computer scientists, and other neural network researchers. The rest of the book is organized along four main themes, involving memory, neuropsychological, neurological and psychiatric disorders. In general, the cognitive disorders and these psychiatric diseases traditionally regarded as "functional" were modeled along functional lines, while those disorders traditionally viewed as "organic" neurological diseases generally drew more from knowledge of the underlying neurobiology and pathophysiology.