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The notion of a dominated or rnajorized operator rests on a simple idea that goes as far back as the Cauchy method of majorants. Loosely speaking, the idea can be expressed as follows. If an operator (equation) under study is dominated by another operator (equation), called a dominant or majorant, then the properties of the latter have a substantial influence on the properties of the former . Thus, operators or equations that have "nice" dominants must possess "nice" properties. In other words, an operator with a somehow qualified dominant must be qualified itself. Mathematical tools, putting the idea of domination into a natural and complete form, were suggested by L. V. Kantorovich in 1935-36. He introduced the funda mental notion of a vector space normed by elements of a vector lattice and that of a linear operator between such spaces which is dominated by a positive linear or monotone sublinear operator. He also applied these notions to solving functional equations. In the succeedingyears many authors studied various particular cases of lattice normed spaces and different classes of dominated operators. However, research was performed within and in the spirit of the theory of vector and normed lattices. So, it is not an exaggeration to say that dominated operators, as independent objects of investigation, were beyond the reach of specialists for half a century. As a consequence, the most important structural properties and some interesting applications of dominated operators have become available since recently.
January 1999 In two former Soviet republics, restructuring was faster in privatized companies that were bought by their managers than it was in companies in which managers received significant ownership stakes for free. Managers' incentives to restructure decrease when they regard their newly acquired ownership as a windfall gain. Using enterprise survey data for 1995-97, Djankov studies and compares how different modes of privatizing to insiders affect enterprise restructuring in two former Soviet republics, Georgia and Moldova. Restructuring in companies in which incumbent managers received significant ownership stakes for free was similar to that in companies that were still state-owned. By contrast, restructuring was faster in companies bought by their managers. Djankov interprets these results as suggesting that managers' incentives to restructure decrease when they regard their newly acquired ownership as a windfall gain. This paper-a product of the Financial Economics Unit, Financial Sector Practice Department-is part of a larger effort in the department to study the restructuring process in transition economies.
In all of the OECD countries, women's employment is heavily concentrated in the same occupations: secretaries, primary school teachers, nurses and home helpers. This book evaluates the future of these occupations.
This volume studies the driving dynamic for thick-skin tectonics. It evaluates the role of various factors that control the development of thick-skin architecture. The studied driving dynamics include individual plate movement rates, overall convergence rates, orogen movement sense with respect to mantle flow and pro-wedge versus retro-wedge location. Numerous internal factors that influence the architecture of thick-skinned dominated orogens have been considered. These include the role of the rheology of the deforming layers, the presence or absence of potential detachment horizons, basement buttresses, crustal thickness variations, inherited strength contrasts and the impact of pre-existing anisotropy in thick-skin orogenic deformation. External factors discussed include the role of both syn-tectonic erosion and deposition in deformation. The study areas begin with worldwide examples and close with a detailed coverage of the Northern Andes natural laboratory, which is characterized by particularly robust data coverage.
This monograph provides in-depth analyses of vortex dominated flows via matched and multiscale asymptotics, and demonstrates how insight gained through these analyses can be exploited in the construction of robust, efficient, and accurate numerical techniques. The book explores the dynamics of slender vortex filaments in detail, including fundamental derivations, compressible core structure, weakly non-linear limit regimes, and associated numerical methods. Similarly, the volume covers asymptotic analysis and computational techniques for weakly compressible flows involving vortex-generated sound and thermoacoustics. The book is addressed to both graduate students and researchers.
With a focus on environmentally friendly rice farming, this unique book integrates both ecosystem and human dimensions of ecological restoration to provide strategies to promote sustainable agriculture and rural development. Paddy fields have multiple functions beyond their role of producing rice: They serve as refuge habitats for a range of wildlife that once inhabited floodplain wetlands and contain a number of unique and threatened aquatic species. They also provide various ecosystem services for regional communities such as water retention, erosion control, flood control, fish culture, and educational opportunities. However, rice paddies are threatened worldwide due to the modernization of agriculture and abandonment of farmland caused by depopulation and the aging of rural communities. Therefore, multiple ecological and sociological aspects must be considered in the ecological restoration of paddy fields. This book aims to do so by incorporating various disciplines of natural and social sciences. Strategies for sustainable agriculture are reviewed, including financial incentives for farmers and the use of flagship wildlife species such as the crested ibis (toki) to promote ecological restoration. With the increasing popularity of environmentally friendly rice farming in parts of Asia and the western United States, this book offers model cases for sustainable management of paddy-dominated landscapes.
'The rise to dominance of finance in the past three decades has had many profound effects on economic performance. In this book Eckhard Hein provides us with detailed, well-grounded and highly insightful analyses of the macroeconomic impacts on investment, employment, global imbalances, income distribution and much more. This is "must read" for those wanting to comprehend the macroeconomics of the era of financialization, and for those seeking macro-economic policies to address the financial crisis and bring economic prosperity.' – Malcolm Sawyer, University of Leeds, UK 'Eckhard Hein examines the causes and consequences of financialisation. His book is economics as it should always be: it combines reflections, data gathering, empirical analysis, theoretical formalization, and policy recommendations. Hein goes beyond the exuberant behaviour of the banking industry to analyse the global financial crisis and the eurozone crisis, showing, through various variants of a Kaleckian growth model, the macroeconomic consequences of the rising dominance of finance over modern capitalism during the last three decades.' – Marc Lavoie, University of Ottawa, Canada In this timely and thought-provoking book, Eckhard Hein illustrates that the Great Recession, which hit the world economy in 2008/09, is rooted in the contradictions of finance-dominated capitalism. the author provides an in-depth exploration of the macroeconomics of finance-dominated capitalism, its problems and its crisis, and presents economic policy lessons and alternatives. In particular, he shows that since the early 1980s, finance-dominated capitalism has affected long-run economic developments via three distinct channels: • the re-distribution of income at the expense of low labour incomes, • the dampening of investment in real capital stock, • and an increasing potential for wealth-based and debt-financed consumption. the author concludes that against the background of these basic macroeconomic tendencies, increasing instability potentials at the national economy levels and rising current account imbalances at both global and European levels have developed and have contributed to the severity of the Great Recession. This systematic study of finance-dominated capitalism presented from a macroeconomic perspective will prove a thought-provoking read for academics, researchers, graduate students and economic policy consultants with an interest in macroeconomics, financial economics, economic policies, and distribution and growth.
This unique book, written by a specialist in the field, is devoted to the design of low and medium field electromagnets whose field level and quality (uniformity) are dominated by the pole shape and saturation characteristics of the iron yoke.